The 59th Pugwash Conference was attended by Adele Buckley and Peter Jones, and by Canadian Pugwash members Pierre Jasmin, Ernie Regehr, Erika Simpson and CSYP member Cameron Harrington.
Statement of the Pugwash Council, Berlin 5 July, 2011
The Council of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs reaffirms its commitment to aworld free of nuclear weapons. The Council calls for nuclear disarmament by all countries that possess nuclear weapons. The Pugwash Council urges the peaceful resolution of conflict in areas where nuclear risks are present. Dialogue is essential if we are to overcome the walls that divide people, countries, religions, and ideas. Disarmament—particularly nuclear disarmament, arms control, and military and nonmilitaryconfidence-building measures are powerful instruments in creating a more peaceful and secure world.
Arctic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone:Now is the Time to Begin
Adele Buckley, Canadian Pugwas, 59th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Berlin, July, 2011
Pressure from many, including the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, to abolish nuclear weapons supports the impetus to eliminate them north of the Arctic Circle, notwithstanding the presence of two nuclear weapons states bordering the Arctic Ocean. The potential role of an Arctic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ) is examined as an element of elimination of nuclear weapons. In the Arctic, two major problems of our time—climate change and nuclear weapons—have created exceptional opportunities for co-operation or conflict. The climate change induced opening of the Arctic with its great upheavals in the way of life and business, tells us that “now is the time” for the Arctic NWFZ. The Government of Canada, the Nordic country governments, the Arctic Council and the Nordic Council are all potential champions for beginning negotiations for nuclear free regions in the Arctic. The history of creation of other nuclear-weapon-free zones suggests that such commitments lead to inclusion of additional sovereign territory and eventually could be the path to an inclusive Arctic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone treaty.
Seeking the Accountability that should ensure the NPT’s Permanence
A paper submitted by Paul Meyer to the Pugwash conference, Berlin, July 1-4, 2011
The 1995 decision to extend indefinitely the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) was one of the major achievements multilateral nuclear diplomacy. It removed concern that the NPT’s contribution to reinforcing the nuclear nonproliferation norm might be jeopardized and that a de-stabilizing era of nuclear uncertainty might ensue. This indefinite extension however was part of a wider package of decisions, one of which focused on the strengthened review process for the NPT. The concept of “permanence with accountability” was articulated at this time. The notion embodies the belief that NPT states parties had a responsibility to account for their implementation of the NPT provisions as the corollary of making the treaty permanent. This accountability requirement was however easier to articulate than to achieve. The 16 years, which have transpired since the 1995 Review and Extension Conference, have shown how elusive this accountability, remains and how NPT states parties have failed to provide their treaty with effective mechanisms to bring it about.