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In recognition of all its efforts Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, together with President Joseph Rotblat, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995.

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CPG: A proud tradition started by the 22 eminent scientists, the founding group of Pugwash, who gathered at Thinkers' Lodge in 1957, to discuss the path to nuclear disarmament.

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940+ Recipients of the Order of Canada Call for a Nuclear Weapons Convention. Visit www.nuclearweaponsconvention.ca

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CPG's focus - World peace and promotion of change to advance the cause of peace. Best known for its work on nuclear disarmament, our concern - all causes of global insecurity.

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The Russell-Einstein Manifesto of 1955 was a major step in the nuclear disarmament campaign by prominent members of the scientific community.

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For more than 50 years the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs have been working for the control, reduction, and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons.

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Canadian Pugwash is part of the wider international Pugwash movement. Visit the Pugwash International website.

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Nuclear disarmament has always been of central importance to Pugwash. But also - Non-Nuclear Threats to Peace and Security, Institutions for a New World Order, Conflict Resolution, Environment and Global Security, Health, Social and Economic Issues.

Welcome to Canadian Pugwash Group

Education on global security, in a broad sense, is the mandate of Canadian Pugwash, carried out by sponsoring meetings, workshops and roundtables to foster informed discussion of experts, for the purpose of providing information which can be useful in the formation of government policy.

April 14, 2010    Toronto Star By Mitch Potter

WASHINGTON–In a final flurry of carefully orchestrated pledges, world leaders nudged the nuclear genie back toward the bottle, one blob of plutonium at a time.

And for that alone, considerable praise is flowing today in the direction of U.S. President Barack Obama, who, weapons experts remind us, was under no obligation to stick his neck out with a global summit on nuclear security.

Basking in Obama's glow is Canada – again, deservedly, the experts say. Ottawa put its money where its mouth is on the issue of loose and vulnerable Cold War-era nukes in 2002. And has taken the lead ever since, not missing a beat in the shift from Liberal to Conservative governments. It was too important to succumb to partisanship.

But get past the pats on the back, wade deep into the actual three-page communiqué, and the wow factor turns to whoa – as in, whoa, these 47 national delegations actually think they will lock down vulnerable weapons-grade uranium and plutonium in four years?

"I'm all for setting audacious goals, but there has to be some reality around it. If you truly appreciate the sheer amount of nuclear material we are talking about, four years is beyond ambitious," said Pekka Sinervo, of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

"I would still offer guarded praise – but add a splash of reality. There's a real attempt here at creating momentum in the right direction. That's great. But not everything is quite as exciting as it sounds," the nuclear proliferation expert said.

Sinervo points, for example, to Russia's promise (received with much White House fanfare) to close its last plutonium factory in the once-secret Siberian city of Zheleznogorsk.

"That already happened. And then they reopened it when the replacement heat-generating plant wasn't ready on time. So this actually is shutdown number two for this project. But it makes for great copy," said Sinervo.

Sinervo's colleague, John Polanyi, the Nobel-winning U of T chemistry professor, took those caveats in stride. He was actually astonished at the overall heft of new commitments from nearly half the 47 national delegations in Washington. And whether it can be done in four years, said Polanyi, is moot.

"It is inspiring to see each nation challenged to contribute and rising to the challenge. The one thing I was looking for is momentum toward legislating our way out of this nuclear mess. As I look through the list of countries, I have to conclude it is there."

Said former senator Douglas Roche, a veteran of the Canadian disarmament movement: "It is hard to imagine Obama going further than he did. Just getting 47 leaders to agree to at least a general statement of this kind means he has done more than any other U.S. president. They could do a lot in four years. They can minimize the risk, but will the world be perfectly safe in four years? No. Because the maintenance of nuclear weapons and the increased use of nuclear energy, with more plants coming online, will continue to be a danger."

In a joint communiqué, leaders agreed to non-binding measures to "secure all vulnerable nuclear material in four years" and to "prevent non-state actors from obtaining the information or technology required to use such material."

They pledged also to deepen cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and share data on nuclear detection and ways to prevent nuclear trafficking. Progress toward those goals is to be measured in 2012, when South Korea holds a follow-up summit.

Obama called the outcome "a testament of what is possible when nations come together in a spirit of partnership to embrace our shared responsibility and confront a shared challenge."

Prime Minister Stephen Harper pointed to two hard commitments – an agreement to return a large portion of Canada's cache of weapons-grade uranium to the United States for reprocessing, and a "Three Amigos" deal that will see Canada partner with Washington to help Mexico work toward replacing its present-day research reactor with a new low-enriched uranium-fuelled plant.

In closing remarks, Obama told reporters that the U.S. is joining with Canada in calling on nations to commit another $10 billion to extend a global partnership launched in 2002 at the G8 summit in Kananaskis, Alta.

Harper later clarified, saying it wasn't Ottawa's idea. "Canada is not the originator of the request but obviously we're going to be looking at this request very seriously and I know all our G8 partners will do the same," he said.