List All Articles prior to 2008

Canadian Peacekeeping: No Myth-But Not What It Once Was
Article by Walter Dorn in SITREP, a bi-monthly publication of the Royal Canadian Military Institute
Volume 67, Number 2, April – May 2007 [pdf]


A Nuclear Disarmament Agenda for Canada
Op-Ed article by Ernie Regehr
Embassy, 30 May 2007 [html] [pdf]


The Enduring Mythology of Vimy
Michael D. Wallace [html] [pdf]
Toronto Star, 9 April 2007


Let’s Work to Prevent Another ‘Accidental War’
Michael Byers [html] [pdf]
Toronto Star, 9 April 2007


Satellite Test Recalls Need for Space Treaty
Article by Michael D. Wallace
Embassy, 31 January 2007 [html]  [pdf]


All we lack is the will to disarm
John Polanyi [html] [pdf]
The Globe and Mail, 9 January 2007


Occupational Hazards of War
Depleted Uranium: All the Questions about DU and Gulf War Syndrome are not Yet Answered
Article by Rosalie Bertell
International Journal of Health Services, 36, no. 3 (2006): 503–520.  View article [pdf]


Sleepwalking Towards a Nuclear Catastrophe
Article by Douglas Roche
Embassy, October 4, 2006  
View article [html] [pdf]


Despite our commitment in Afghanistan, the Canadian forces still have the capacity to make a big difference in Darfur, says conflict specialist Peter Langille.
Peter Langille [html] [pdf]
The Globe and Mail, 27 April 2006


From War to Law Via Science
John Polanyi [html] [pdf]
Toronto Star, 19 February 2006


Canada Can’t Avoid the Global Nuclear Crisis
Douglas Roche [html] [pdf]
Embassy, 22 March 2006


Canada Pulls Out of Peacekeeping
Walter Dorn [html] [pdf]
The Globe and Mail, 27 March 2006


Breaking the Ice on Canada-U.S. Arctic Co-operation
Franklyn Griffiths [html] [pdf]
The Globe and Mail, 22 February 2006


Harper’s Military Plans Only Please Bush, Not Canadians
Barbara Bedont and Erika Simpson [html] [pdf]
Embassy, 15 February 2006


War beyond Earth is not inevitable. But only the rule of law can prevent it
John Polanyi [html] [pdf]
Globe and Mail, 17 May 2005


Threats to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Erika Simpson [html] [pdf]
Embassy, 4 May 2005


At the unholy altar of nuclear weapons
Douglas Roche [html] [pdf]

Toronto Star, 19 April 2005


Freedom of expression?
Prof. Pierre Jasmin [html] [pdf]
University Affairs, 5 March 2005


New Threats to the Alliance’s Security and Strategies to Reform NATO
Erika Simpson [pdf]

Transatlantic Quarterly, Volume 1 (3), Winter/Spring 2005

The Tsunami, God and a Nuclear Catastrophe
Douglas Roche [html] [pdf]

Edmonton Journal, 3 January 2005


Revisiting the Great Debate
Erika Simpson [html] [pdf]

London Free Press, 29 December 2004


Preventing Genocide: Time for a UN 911

Peter Langille [html] [pdf]

Globe and Mail, 19 October 2004


Lessons of prior Cabinet decision-making on U.S. missiles: Diefenbaker went through similar situation as Martin

Erika Simpson [html] [pdf]

The Hill Times, 4 October 2004


The Forgotten Bomarc Story: Martin government should apply lessons of Bomarc to Bush’s NMD 
Article published in The CCPA Monitor, March 2004
Dr. Derek Manchester, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Toronto
Dr. Lynn Trainor, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Toronto and CPG Member
[html] [pdf]


What will Canada do about the continued threat posed by the 34,145 nuclear weapons in the world?
Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C.

Guest Column in The Hill Times

March 2004

[html] [pdf]


Fanning the Flames of Ethnic Hatred

David Parnas, member of Canadian Pugwash Group, former President of Science for Peace
Hamilton Spectator

July 2, 1999

[html] [pdf]


United States National Missile Defence

Canadian Pugwash Group Press Release

October 21, 2000

[html] [pdf]

Forums and Conferences

Canadian Pugwash Group Annual Forums

Since 1996, Canadian Pugwash has sponsored an annual forum. Each of these seminars has a global security theme; the invited presenters are acknowledged experts in their field. Members, on the basis of their own expertise, add value to the information exchange. Suggestions for future topics for the Forum are welcomed and should be forwarded to the Chair, Canadian Pugwash Group.

Read more


CPG Events Summary 2007- 1998


8 July 2007

PUBLIC FORUM: Communicating the Urgency of Staged Universal Nuclear Disarmament

The High School, Village of Pugwash, Nova Scotia   Click here for more information

View presentation by M.S. Swaminathan, President, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs [pdf]

Forum Objectives: With a focus on issues important to Canada, and an awareness that staged universal nuclear disarmament is mandatory as an international goal, we plan to formulate a new “Call to Canadians” using the following tools:

(a) a starting point, provided by Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, President, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
(b) information from expert speakers
(c) brainstorming to bring out innovative ideas, and consensus on the most effective way to communicate the importance of nuclear disarmament to Canadians and the Government of Canada

8 January 2007

Canadian Pugwash Member Receives Highest Award of the Mathematical Association of America

Professor Emeritus Lee Lorch, York University, has received the Yueh-Gin Gung and Dr. Charles Y. Hu Distinguished Service to Mathematics Award [read more]


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27 October 2006

Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy and Global Security
Annual Joint Forum of Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace
Hart House, University of Toronto

A lively debate on the present and future role of Canadian policy in the United Nations, Afghanistan, Iran, Sudan, and North Korea.

View full report [pdf] View press release [pdf]

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Day
August 6 and 9

Toronto Mayor David Miller, a member of the international Mayors for Peace organization, proclaimed August 6 and 9, 2006 as Hiroshima and Nagasaki Day, on behalf of Toronto City Council. Canadian Pugwash member Phyllis Creighton was the MC for Nagasaki day, the major memorial day chosen for this year. [click here for an excerpt from her remarks]

June 23-28, 2006

World Peace Forum
Vancouver, BC

Canadian Pugwash Group (CPG) was one of the official sponsoring groups of the World Peace Forum. Besides participating in many parts of the program, CPG members concentrated their efforts on the Nuclear Issues Working Group, and members Bev Delong, Steve Staples and Mike Wallace were part of the group that authored the Final Statement of the Nuclear Issues Working Group. [view statement]

Program Elements Sponsored by Canadian Pugwash Group

World Peace Forum – Nuclear Issues Working Group

Nuclear Weapons: Diplomatic Initiatives
Chaired by Peter Langille: CPG panel members – Douglas Roche, Erika Simpson, Mike Wallace

Nuclear Power: False Dawn, Bright Flash
Chaired by Mike Wallace: CPG panel members – Adele Buckley, Mike Wallace

Whistle Blower/Refuseniks/War Resister
Chaired by Theodora Carroll : CPG panel member – Steven Staples (on behalf of Mel Watkins)

Canadian Defence Policy and Global Security
Chaired by Erika Simpson; CPG panel members – Walter Dorn, Peter Langille, Steve Staples, Mike Wallace, Adele Buckley

These events were part of the regular World Peace Forum program. In addition, the Canadian Pugwash Group sponsored an event that was specifically directed at Canadian Pugwash and international members

Canadian Pugwash Forum: “As the 50th Anniversary Approaches, Ideas for the Future of Pugwash – International and National”

June 24-30, 2006

Vancouver Peace Forum
Canadian Pugwash Group Executive Meeting

Canadian Pugwash Group is sponsoring a series of panels, workshops and plenaries at Vancouver Peace Forum. See this website for more details in the months ahead or go to the Vancouver Peace Forum website.

May 19 and June 15, 2006

Members of Canadian Pugwash Group to Receive Honorary Doctorates

Hon. Douglas Roche, O. C., Doctor of Civil Law, St. Mary’s University, Halifax, NS, May 19, 2006
Peter Meincke, Doctor of Science, Royal Military College, Kingston, ON, May 19, 2006
Adele Buckley, Doctor of Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, June 15, 2006

May 9, 2006: Robert William Reford
May 1, 1921 to May 9, 2006

Robert (Bob) Reford passed away peacefully at home on May 9th, just a week after being honoured at his 85th birthday party. He had a lifelong involvement in the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs and was a founding director of the Canadian Centre for Arms Control and Disarmament. Click here for more…

View a full-page obituary by Sandra Martin , The Globe and Mail, 13 May 2006 [pdf]


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October 1, 2005

Annual Joint Forum
Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace
Creatively Advancing the Nuclear Abolition Agenda

Forum Report [pdf]

Nuclear Weapons Free Zones, Canada and Disarmament
Dr. Andrew Bone, McMaster University [pdf]

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto and the Origins of Pugwash
Dr. Mark Leith, University of Toronto [pdf]

Unacceptable Risk: Launch-on-Warning Policy
Robin Collins [pdf]

Nuclear Terrorism
Sarah Estabrooks

Andrew Bone

Mark Leith

Robin Collins

Sarah Estabrooks

September 30 – October 1, 2005

September 6, 2005

A Day for Peace: Toronto Says No To Nuclear Weapons
Hiroshima Day Coalition 60th commemoration of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
4:00 pm, Nathan Phillips Square [click here for more information]
Canadian Pugwash Group is a sponsor and member organization of the Hiroshima Day Coalition

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November 11-13, 2004

Canadian Pugwash Group Annual General Meeting and Forum
University Women’s Club, 162 St. George St., Toronto
Agenda [pdf]
Statement adopted by the Executive of the Canadian Pugwash Group (CPG) [pdf]

Global Security: A View from Down Under
Address by HE Graham Kelly, New Zealand High Commissioner to Canada [pdf]

Canadian Defence Policy in a Human Security Context: Reshaping the Security Envelope

Panel notes by Ernie Regehr [pdf]
October 4-9, 2004

54th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs
Bridging a Divided World Through International Cooperation and Disarmament
Seoul, South Korea

Statement of the Pugwash Council [pdf]

Conference Papers:
Re-nuclearization or Disarmament: A Fateful Choice for Humanity
Political Analysis of the Third Preparatory Committee Meeting for the 2005 Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Senator Douglas Roche, O.C., Chairman, Middle Powers Initiative [pdf]

Failure of Multinational Corporations to Share the Responsibility for Global Security
Paper by Adele Buckley [pdf]

Refurbishing Analysis and Debate on Nuclear Affairs
Paper by David Harries [pdf]

How Can Military Plutonium be Dispositioned? A Discussion and Evaluation of Some Policy Options
Paper by Robert James Sancton [pdf]

Terrorism and Biology: The Reciprocal Signalling Cascade Between State and Non-State Actors
Paper by Paul A. Hamel [pdf]
More information on the conference from International Pugwash [html]

April 17, 2004

Annual Joint Forum – Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace
Development of Canadian Policy in the Shadow of US Defence and Foreign Policy
Toronto, Ontario
Forum Report by Christie Dennison [pdf]
“Power of the Weak? Canada’s Diplomacy and the Bush Doctrine”
Presentation by Maria Banda [pdf]
“Genesis and Development of the NPT: An Overview of the Review Process”
Presentation by Sergio Duarte, Ambassador-at-large of Brazil for Disarmament and Non-proliferation [pdf]

February 26-27, 2004

Canadian Pugwash Group and Middle Powers Initiative Policy Development Roundtable

“The NPT and Canada’s Nuclear Weapons Policies”
Ottawa, Ontario

News Release – March 22, 2004 [pdf]

Building Bridges: The Non-Proliferation Treaty and Canada’s Nuclear Weapons Policies
A Policy Paper for the Government of Canada
English version: [pdf]    French version: [pdf]

Response from the Office of the Prime Minister – April 6, 2004 [pdf]

NATO’s Nuclear Weapons Policy: relationships to the 2000 and 2005 NPT Review Conferences, the paragraph 32 process and future Canadian policy
Draft paper by Dr. Erika Simpson [pdf]

Address by Debbie Grisdale, Executive Director, Physicians for Global Survival (Canada) [pdf]


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July 16-22, 2003
53rd Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs: Advancing Human Security: The Role of Technology and Politics
Halifax, Nova Scotia

Conference Schedule [html]

Conference Working Groups [html]

Statement of the Pugwash Council [pdf]

Draft Press Release for Delegates [pdf]

Informal Poll of Participants [pdf]

Summary of the views of 32 Canadian participants who attended the 53rd Pugwash Conference in Halifax. Twenty-five of the participants replied to the questions, including six members of Student Pugwash. An additional seven are included who had responded to question 5 on the final day of the conference. The results provide a rich seedbed of thoughts, concerns and proposals which we can draw on in the coming year.

Report of the Working Group Meetings of International Student / Young Pugwash (ISYP) [pdf]

Speech by Joseph Rotblat – “The Nuclear Issue: Pugwash and Bush Policies” [pdf]

Message from Kofi Annan, Secretary-General, United Nations [pdf]

Space Weapons: Not Yet – Background paper by Richard L. Garwin [pdf]

Other Halifax Conference documents from International Pugwash

March 22, 2003

Annual Joint Seminar – Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace

Preventing the Weaponization of Space

Toronto, Ontario

Report by Dr. Walter Dorn, Rapporteur [pdf]


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July 19, 2002

2002 FORUMTechnology and Human Security
Thinkers’ Lodge – Pugwash, Nova Scotia

Introduction Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.,
Keynote Speaker Jill Sinclair, Director General, International Security Bureau, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Speakers Geoffrey Pearson (chair (a.m.)); Derek Paul (chair (p.m.)); Douglas Roche; Walter Dorn; Adele Buckley; Stephanie McCandless Reford; Rapporteur: Erika Simpson

Summary Report [pdf]

July 18, 2002

Canadian Pugwash Group Workshop

Opening Address by Newton Bowles [pdf]

March 23, 2002

Annual Joint Seminar of the Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace

The Responsibility to Protect: A Seminar on the Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty

Summary Report [pdf]


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October 20, 2001

2001 FORUMThe Consequences of September 11, 2001 on Canadian Foreign Policy
Toronto, Ontario

Chair and Introduction Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.,
Keynote Speaker Jim Wright, Assistant Deputy Minister, Global and Security Policy, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Speakers Geoffrey Pearson; Erika Simpson; Murray Thomson; Rapporteur: Walter Dorn

Keynote Address [pdf]

October 20, 2001

2001 Annual General Meeting
Ottawa, Ontario

March 17, 2001

Annual Joint Seminar – Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace
Canada, NATO and Nuclear Weapons
Toronto, Ontario

A paper presented to by Senator Douglas Roche, O.C. Chairman, Canadian Pugwash Group, and Ernie Regehr, Executive Director, Project Ploughshares can be viewed here: [pdf]

Following the seminar, a detailed letter report was sent to The Hon. John Manley, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and The Hon. Art Eggleton, Minister of National Defence.

The letter, dated March 23, 2001 can be viewed here: [pdf]

March 16, 2001

Free Public Forum – Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace

Social Responsibility in Science and Technology
Memorial to the late Eric Fawcett, Founding President of Science for Peace and long-time member of the Canadian Pugwash Group and of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists

Keynote Event:
A conversation between Dr. Ursula Franklin, University Professor Emerita of Materials Science, University of Toronto and Dr. Derek Paul, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Toronto and Dr. Nancy Olivieri, Professor, University of Toronto with host Douglas Roche, Chairman, Canadian Pugwash Group


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October 21, 2000

2000 FORUM – Canada’s Position on Ballistic Missile Defence

Toronto, Ontario

Chair and Introduction Professor Erika Simpson, University of Western Ontario
Keynote Speaker Professor Ann Denholm Crosby, York University
Speakers Mr. Robert McDougall, Director of the Non-Proliferation, Arms Control & Disarmament Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), Canada

Keynote Address [pdf]

Summary Report [pdf]

October 21, 2000

2000 Annual General Meeting

Ottawa, Ontario

Canadian Pugwash Group Press Release – United States National Missile Defence

Article [pdf]

October 14, 2000

Teach-in, sponsored by Science for Peace in cooperation with several organizations in the peace movement

NMD: The Son of Star Wars – The Militarization of Outer Space and Why Canada Should Say No to the USA’s National Missile Defence

For more details, see Science for Peace website

March 18, 2000

Annual Joint Seminar – Canadian Pugwash Group and Science for Peace

The NPT, NATO and Canada: The Future of Nuclear Weapons

“Canada’s Role in the Non Proliferation Review and the NATO Review of Nuclear Weapons”

Toronto, Ontario

Chaired by Prof. Mel Watkins and Senator Doug Roche, members of Science for Peace and Canadian Pugwash, together with invited speakers, met to discuss the following questions:

  • Given present tensions in the non-proliferation regime, what is the requirement for the success of the NPT 2000 Review?
  • Given the NATO leadership’s reluctance to change the present Strategic Concept, what is required of NATO in order that its members be in compliance with Article VI of the NPT?
  • Given Canada’s willingness to work with the New Agenda Coalition and to strengthen cooperation with Russia, what steps can be taken to persuade the Nuclear Weapons States to make an unequivocal commitment to commence negotiations leading to a program to eliminate nuclear weapons?

The seminar focused primarily on the role that Canada could play in the process of examining the future of nuclear weapons and suggesting ways to move towards their total abolition. The participants hope their strongly held views are both heard and inspire action by leaders and policy makers in the Canadian government.

A background paper prepared by Senator Douglas Roche can be viewed here: [pdf]

Following the seminar, a letter was sent to the Rt. Hon. Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada. It was prepared by the rapporteur, Dr. Walter Dorn, and was reviewed by the seminar co-chairs, Senator Douglas Roche and Prof. Mel Watkins. A copy of the letter was also sent to the Hon. Lloyd Axworthy, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the Hon. Art Eggleton, Minister of National Defence and Mr. Bill Graham, Chair of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (SCFAIT).

The letter, dated March 22, 2000 can be viewed here: [pdf]


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October 23, 1999

1999 FORUM – Changing Our Dependence on the Use of Deadly Conflict

Toronto, Ontario

Introduction Douglas Roche
Speakers Ann Gertler, Hanna Newcombe, Maxwell Bruce, Len Johnson, Walter Dorn, Metta Spencer, Bill Epstein
Respondents many, including Morris Miller, Geoffrey Pearson, Lynn Trainor, Terry Gardner, Giovanni Brenciaglia

October 23, 1999
1999 Annual General Meeting

Ottawa, Ontario

March 10, 1999
Joint Session of House of Commons and Senate Foreign Affairs Committees

The joint session was attended by Canadian Pugwashites Terry Gardner and Eric Fawcett, Science for Peace member Connie Gardner, David Morgan, President of Veterans Against Nuclear Weapons (VANA) and other representatives of Canadian Network for Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (CNANW), who listened to addresses by former U.S. Defence Secretary Robert McNamara and retired U.S. Air Force General Lee Butler. McNamara and Butler then addressed the CNANW on Thursday morning. The group reported that Butler’s words constituted a sincere confession and were deeply moving. He got a standing ovation.

Article from Globe and Mail [pdf]

Transcript of address by retired U.S. Air Force General Lee Butler to CNANW representatives [pdf]


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October 23, 1998
1998 Annual General Meeting, Ottawa

October 17, 1998
1998 FORUM – Canada and the Use of Force by the Security Council
Toronto, Ontario

Introduction Geoffrey Pearson
Canada and the Use of Force by the Security Council Michael Oliver
The U.N. Security Council: In The Post-Cold War World Peace Operations David Malone

Russell Einstein Manifesto

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto of 1955 was a major step in the nuclear disarmament campaign by prominent members of the scientific community. Today, the Pugwash Conferences throughout the world draw attention to Peace and Security Issues. The Canadian Pugwash Group (CPG) is the Canadian national affiliate of International Pugwash.

Issued in London, 9 July 1955

In the tragic situation which confronts humanity, we feel that scientists should assemble in conference to appraise the perils that have arisen as a result of the development of weapons of mass destruction, and to discuss a resolution in the spirit of the appended draft.

We are speaking on this occasion, not as members of this or that nation, continent, or creed, but as human beings, members of the species Man, whose continued existence is in doubt. The world is full of conflicts; and, overshadowing all minor conflicts, the titanic struggle between Communism and anti-Communism.

Almost everybody who is politically conscious has strong feelings about one or more of these issues; but we want you, if you can, to set aside such feelings and consider yourselves only as members of a biological species which has had a remarkable history, and whose disappearance none of us can desire.

We shall try to say no single word which should appeal to one group rather than to another. All, equally, are in peril, and, if the peril is understood, there is hope that they may collectively avert it.

We have to learn to think in a new way. We have to learn to ask ourselves, not what steps can be taken to give military victory to whatever group we prefer, for there no longer are such steps; the question we have to ask ourselves is: what steps can be taken to prevent a military contest of which the issue must be disastrous to all parties?

The general public, and even many men in positions of authority, have not realized what would be involved in a war with nuclear bombs. The general public still thinks in terms of the obliteration of cities. It is understood that the new bombs are more powerful than the old, and that, while one A-bomb could obliterate Hiroshima, one H-bomb could obliterate the largest cities, such as London, New York, and Moscow.

No doubt in an H-bomb war great cities would be obliterated. But this is one of the minor disasters that would have to be faced. If everybody in London, New York, and Moscow were exterminated, the world might, in the course of a few centuries, recover from the blow. But we now know, especially since the Bikini test, that nuclear bombs can gradually spread destruction over a very much wider area than had been supposed.

It is stated on very good authority that a bomb can now be manufactured which will be 2,500 times as powerful as that which destroyed Hiroshima. Such a bomb, if exploded near the ground or under water, sends radio-active particles into the upper air. They sink gradually and reach the surface of the earth in the form of a deadly dust or rain. It was this dust which infected the Japanese fishermen and their catch of fish.

No one knows how widely such lethal radio- active particles might be diffused, but the best authorities are unanimous in saying that a war with H-bombs might possibly put an end to the human race. It is feared that if many H-bombs are used there will be universal death, sudden only for a minority, but for the majority a slow torture of disease and disintegration.

Many warnings have been uttered by eminent men of science and by authorities in military strategy. None of them will say that the worst results are certain. What they do say is that these results are possible, and no one can be sure that they will not be realized. We have not yet found that the views of experts on this question depend in any degree upon their politics or prejudices. They depend only, so far as our researches have revealed, upon the extent of the particular expert’s knowledge. We have found that the men who know most are the most gloomy.

Here, then, is the problem which we present to you, stark and dreadful and inescapable: Shall we put an end to the human race; or shall mankind renounce war? People will not face this alternative because it is so difficult to abolish war.

The abolition of war will demand distasteful limitations of national sovereignty. But what perhaps impedes understanding of the situation more than anything else is that the term “mankind” feels vague and abstract. People scarcely realize in imagination that the danger is to themselves and their children and their grandchildren, and not only to a dimly apprehended humanity. They can scarcely bring themselves to grasp that they, individually, and those whom they love are in imminent danger of perishing agonizingly. And so they hope that perhaps war may be allowed to continue provided modern weapons are prohibited.

This hope is illusory. Whatever agreements not to use H-bombs had been reached in time of peace, they would no longer be considered binding in time of war, and both sides would set to work to manufacture H-bombs as soon as war broke out, for, if one side manufactured the bombs and the other did not, the side that manufactured them would inevitably be victorious.

Although an agreement to renounce nuclear weapons as part of a general reduction of armaments would not afford an ultimate solution, it would serve certain important purposes. First: any agreement between East and West is to the good in so far as it tends to diminish tension. Second: the abolition of thermo-nuclear weapons, if each side believed that the other had carried it out sincerely, would lessen the fear of a sudden attack in the style of Pearl Harbour, which at present keeps both sides in a state of nervous apprehension. We should, therefore, welcome such an agreement though only as a first step.

Most of us are not neutral in feeling, but, as human beings, we have to remember that, if the issues between East and West are to be decided in any manner that can give any possible satisfaction to anybody, whether Communist or anti-Communist, whether Asian or European or American, whether White or Black, then these issues must not be decided by war. We should wish this to be understood, both in the East and in the West.

There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal, as human beings, to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death.


We invite this Congress, and through it the scientists of the world and the general public, to subscribe to the following resolution:

“In view of the fact that in any future world war nuclear weapons will certainly be employed, and that such weapons threaten the continued existence of mankind, we urge the Governments of the world to realize, and to acknowledge publicly, that their purpose cannot be furthered by a world war, and we urge them, consequently, to find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them.”

Max Born | Perry W. Bridgman | Albert Einstein | Leopold Infeld | Frederic Joliot-Curie | Herman J. Muller | Linus Pauling | Cecil F. Powell | Joseph Rotblat | Bertrand Russell | Hideki Yukawa